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API 5L STEEL PIPES
API 5L STEEL TUBE
API 5L CARBON STEEL PIPE
API 5L SEAMLESS PIPE
API 5L STEEL PIPES
API 5L STEEL TUBE
API 5L CARBON STEEL PIPE
API 5L SEAMLESS PIPE

API 5L STEEL PIPE

An API pipe is manufactured following all standards and regulations set by the American Petroleum Institute. The api pipe chart is prepared after consulting and following all the standards set by international and national bodies. The ISO 3183, which is a standardization system of transportation of fluids and gases, is strictly followed. The api pipe schedule covers seamless, welded, ERW, EFW, fabricated, hollow pipes. These pipes are available in the standard schedule between sch 5 to sch 160 and sch XXS. The api pipe sizes depend on the different grades and chemical material used in producing them. Apart from this, the PSL 1 and PSL 2 specifications play a role in determining the sizes of these pipes.
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Product introduction

Scope

ANSI / API 5L specifies the manufacture of two product levels (PSL1 and PSL2) of seamless and welded steel pipe for the use of a pipeline in the transportation of petroleum and natural gas. For material use in a sour service application, refer to Annex H; for offshore service application, refer to Annex J of API 5L 45th Edition.

Process

Ingots, blooms, billets, coils or plates used for the manufacture of pipe shall be made via basic oxygen, electric furnace or open hearth in combination with a ladle refining process. For PSL2, the steel shall be killed and melted according to a fine grain practice. Coil or plate used for PSL2 pipe shall not contain any repair welds.
 

API 5L covers Grade B, X42, X46, X52, X56, X60, X65, X70, X80

API 5L steel line pipe adopts different steel grades, generally are Gr. B, X42, X46, X52, X56, X60, X65, X70, X80. Some manufacturers are capable of manufacturing steel grade up to X100 and X120. As the steel line pipe grades higher, more strictly control on the carbon equivalent control, and higher mechanical strength performances.

More over, for the same grade API 5L pipe, seamless and welded chemical elements content is different, which welded pipe is required more strictly and lower on Carbon and Sulfur.

By different delivery condition, there are also As-rolled, normalizing rolled, thermomechanical rolled, normalizing formed, normalized, normalized and tempered, quenched and tempered.

Technical data

Chemical Composition for PSL 1 pipe with t ≤ 0.984”

Steel Grade Mass fraction, % based on heat and product analyses a,g
C Mn P S V Nb Ti
max b max b max max max max max
Seamless Pipe
A 0.22 0.9 0.3 0.3
B 0.28 1.2 0.3 0.3 c,d c,d d
X42 0.28 1.3 0.3 0.3 d d d
X46 0.28 1.4 0.3 0.3 d d d
X52 0.28 1.4 0.3 0.3 d d d
X56 0.28 1.4 0.3 0.3 d d d
X60 0.28 e 1.40 e 0.3 0.3 f f f
X65 0.28 e 1.40 e 0.3 0.3 f f f
X70 0.28 e 1.40 e 0.3 0.3 f f f
Welded Pipe
A 0.22 0.9 0.3 0.3
B 0.26 1.2 0.3 0.3 c,d c,d d
X42 0.26 1.3 0.3 0.3 d d d
X46 0.26 1.4 0.3 0.3 d d d
X52 0.26 1.4 0.3 0.3 d d d
X56 0.26 1.4 0.3 0.3 d d d
X60 0.26 e 1.40 e 0.3 0.3 f f f
X65 0.26 e 1.45 e 0.3 0.3 f f f
X70 0.26e 1.65 e 0.3 0.3 f f f
a. Cu ≤ = 0.50% Ni; ≤ 0.50%; Cr ≤ 0.50%; and Mo ≤ 0.15%,
b. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum concentration for carbon, an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum concentration for Mn is permissible, up to a maximum of 1.65% for grades ≥ L245 or B, but ≤ L360 or X52; up to a maximum of 1.75% for grades > L360 or X52, but < L485 or X70; and up to a maximum of 2.00% for grade L485 or X70.,
c. Unless otherwise agreed NB + V ≤ 0.06%,
d. Nb + V + TI ≤ 0.15%,
e. Unless otherwise agreed.,
f. Unless otherwise agreed, NB + V = Ti ≤ 0.15%,
g. No deliberate addition of B is permitted and the residual B ≤ 0.001%

Chemical Composition for PSL 2 pipe with t ≤ 0.984”

Steel Grade Mass fraction, % based on heat and product analyses Carbon Equiv a
C Si Mn P S V Nb Ti Other CE IIW CE Pcm
max b max max b max max max max max max max
Seamless and Welded Pipe
BR 0.24 0.4 1.2 0.025 0.015 c c 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X42R 0.24 0.4 1.2 0.025 0.015 0.06 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
BN 0.24 0.4 1.2 0.025 0.015 c c 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X42N 0.24 0.4 1.2 0.025 0.015 0.06 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X46N 0.24 0.4 1.4 0.025 0.015 0.07 0.05 0.04 d,e,l 0.43 0.25
X52N 0.24 0.45 1.4 0.025 0.015 0.1 0.05 0.04 d,e,l 0.43 0.25
X56N 0.24 0.45 1.4 0.025 0.015 0.10f 0.05 0.04 d,e,l 0.43 0.25
X60N 0.24f 0.45f 1.40f 0.025 0.015 0.10f 0.05f 0.04f g,h,l As agreed
BQ 0.18 0.45 1.4 0.025 0.015 0.05 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X42Q 0.18 0.45 1.4 0.025 0.015 0.05 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X46Q 0.18 0.45 1.4 0.025 0.015 0.05 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X52Q 0.18 0.45 1.5 0.025 0.015 0.05 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X56Q 0.18 0.45f 1.5 0.025 0.015 0.07 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X60Q 0.18f 0.45f 1.70f 0.025 0.015 g g g h,l 0.43 0.25
X65Q 0.18f 0.45f 1.70f 0.025 0.015 g g g h,l 0.43 0.25
X70Q 0.18f 0.45f 1.80f 0.025 0.015 g g g h,l 0.43 0.25
X80Q 0.18f 0.45f 1.90f 0.025 0.015 g g g i,j As agreed
X90Q 0.16f 0.45f 1.9 0.02 0.01 g g g j,k As agreed
X100Q 0.16f 0.45f 1.9 0.02 0.01 g g g j,k As agreed
Welded Pipe
BM 0.22 0.45 1.2 0.025 0.015 0.05 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X42M 0.22 0.45 1.3 0.025 0.015 0.05 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X46M 0.22 0.45 1.3 0.025 0.015 0.05 0.05 0.04 e,l 0.43 0.25
X52M 0.22 0.45 1.4 0.025 0.015 d d d e,l 0.43 0.25
X56M 0.22 0.45f 1.4 0.025 0.015 d d d e,l 0.43 0.25
X60M 0.12f 0.45f 1.60f 0.025 0.015 g g g h,l 0.43 0.25
X65M 0.12f 0.45f 1.60f 0.025 0.015 g g g h,l 0.43 0.25
X70M 0.12f 0.45f 1.70f 0.025 0.015 g g g h,l 0.43 0.25
X80M 0.12f 0.45f 1.85f 0.025 0.015 g g g i,j .043f 0.25
X90M 0.1 0.55f 2.10f 0.02 0.01 g g g i,j 0.25
X100M 0.1 0.55f 2.10f 0.02 0.01 g g g i,j 0.25
a. SMLS t>0.787”, CE limits shall be as agreed. The CEIIW limits applied fi C > 0.12% and the CEPcm limits apply if C ≤ 0.12%,
b. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum for C, an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum for Mn is permissible, up to a maximum of 1.65% for grades ≥ L245 or B, but ≤ L360 or X52; up to a maximum of 1.75% for grades > L360 or X52, but < L485 or X70; up to a maximum of 2.00% for grades ≥ L485 or X70, but ≤ L555 or X80; and up to a maximum of 2.20% for grades > L555 or X80.,
c. Unless otherwise agreed Nb = V ≤ 0.06%,
d. Nb = V = Ti ≤ 0.15%,
e. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50%; Ni ≤ 0.30% Cr ≤ 0.30% and Mo ≤ 0.15%,
f. Unless otherwise agreed,
g. Unless otherwise agreed, Nb + V + Ti ≤ 0.15%,
h. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50% Ni ≤ 0.50% Cr ≤ 0.50% and MO ≤ 0.50%,
i. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50% Ni ≤ 1.00% Cr ≤ 0.50% and MO ≤ 0.50%,
j. B ≤ 0.004%,
k. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50% Ni ≤ 1.00% Cr ≤ 0.55% and MO ≤ 0.80%,
l. For all PSL 2 pipe grades except those grades with footnotes j noted, the following applies. Unless otherwise agreed no intentional addition of B is permitted and residual B ≤ 0.001%.

Mechanical properties

Pipe Grade Tensile Properties – Pipe Body of SMLS and Welded Pipes PSL 1 Seam of Welded Pipe
Yield Strength a Tensile Strength a Elongation Tensile Strength b
Rt0,5 PSI Min Rm PSI Min (in 2in Af % min) Rm PSI Min
A 30,500 48,600 c 48,600
B 35,500 60,200 c 60,200
X42 42,100 60,200 c 60,200
X46 46,400 63,100 c 63,100
X52 52,200 66,700 c 66,700
X56 56,600 71,100 c 71,100
X60 60,200 75,400 c 75,400
X65 65,300 77,500 c 77,500
X70 70,300 82,700 c 82,700
a. For intermediate grade, the difference between the specified minimum tensile strength and the specified minimum yield for the pipe body shall be as given for the next higher grade.
b. For the intermediate grades, the specified minimum tensile strength for the weld seam shall be the same as determined for the body using foot note a.
c. The specified minimum elongation, Af, expressed in percent and rounded to the nearest percent, shall be determined using the following equation:
Where C is 1 940 for calculation using Si units and 625 000 for calculation using USC units
Axc   is the applicable tensile test piece cross-sectional area, expressed in square millimeters (square inches) , as follows
– For circular cross-section test pieces, 130mm2 (0.20 in2) for 12.7 mm (0.500 in) and 8.9 mm (.350 in) diameter test pieces; and 65 mm2 (0.10 in2) for 6.4 mm (0.250in) diameter test pieces.
– For full-section test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified outside diameter and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
– For strip test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified width of the test piece and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
U is the specified minimum tensile strength, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch)
Pipe Grade Tensile Properties – Pipe Body of SMLS and Welded Pipes PSL 2 Seam of Welded Pipe
Yield Strength a Tensile Strength a Ratio a,c Elongation Tensile Strength d
Rt0,5  PSI Min Rm  PSI Min R10,5IRm (in 2in) Rm (psi)
      Af %  
Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Maximum Minimum Minimum
BR, BN,BQ,BM 35,500 65,300 60,200 95,000 0.93 f 60,200
X42,X42R,X2Q,X42M 42,100 71,800 60,200 95,000 0.93 f 60,200
X46N,X46Q,X46M 46,400 76,100 63,100 95,000 0.93 f 63,100
X52N,X52Q,X52M 52,200 76,900 66,700 110,200 0.93 f 66,700
X56N,X56Q,X56M 56,600 79,000 71,100 110,200 0.93 f 71,100
X60N,X60Q,S60M 60,200 81,900 75,400 110,200 0.93 f 75,400
X65Q,X65M 65,300 87,000 77,600 110,200 0.93 f 76,600
X70Q,X65M 70,300 92,100 82,700 110,200 0.93 f 82,700
X80Q,X80M 80,.500 102,300 90,600 119,700 0.93 f 90,600
a. For intermediate grade, refer to the full API5L specification.
b. for grades > X90 refer to the full API5L specification.
c. This limit applies for pies with D> 12.750 in
d. For intermediate grades, the specified minimum tensile strength for the weld seam shall be the same value as was determined for the pipe body using foot a.
e. for pipe requiring longitudinal testing, the maximum yield strength shall be ≤ 71,800 psi
f. The specified minimum elongation, Af, expressed in percent and rounded to the nearest percent, shall be determined using the following equation:
Where C is 1 940 for calculation using Si units and 625 000 for calculation using USC units
Axc   is the applicable tensile test piece cross-sectional area, expressed in square millimeters (square inches) , as follows
– For circular cross-section test pieces, 130mm2 (0.20 in2) for 12.7 mm (0.500 in) and 8.9 mm (.350 in) diameter test pieces; and 65 mm2 (0.10 in2) for 6.4 mm (0.250in) diameter test pieces.
–  For full-section test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified outside diameter and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
–  For strip test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified width of the test piece and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
   U is the specified minimum tensile strength, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch
g. Lower values fo R10,5IRm may be specified by agreement
h. for grades > x90 refer to the full API5L specification.
 

Hydrostatic test

Pipe to withstand a hydrostatic test without leakage through the weld seam or the pipe body. Jointers need not be hydrostatic tested provide the pipe sections used were successfully tested.

Bend test

No cracks shall occur in any portion of the test piece and no opening of the weld shall occur.

Flattening test

Acceptance criteria for flattening test shall be:

CVN impact test for PSL2

Many PSL2 pipe sizes and grades require CVN. Seamless pipe is to be tested in the body. Welded pipe is to be tested in the body, pipe weld and heat-affected zone. Refer to the full API 5L specification for the chart of sizes and grades and required absorbed energy values.
 











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